• Foundations and oversite concrete

    The trenches which have to be dug for the foundations of walls may be excavated by hand for single small buildings but where, for example, several houses are being built at the same time it is often economical to use mechanical trench diggers.

    If the trenches are of any depth it may be necessary to fix temporary timber supports to stop the sides of the trench from falling in. The nature of the soil being excavated mainly determines the depth of trench for which timber supports to the sides should be used.

    Soft granular soils readily crumble and the sides of trenches in such soil may have to be supported for the full depth of the trench. The sides of trenches in clay soil do not usually require support for some depth, say up to 1.5 m, particularly in dry weather. In rainy weather, if the bottom of the trench in clay soil gets filled with water, the water may wash out the clay from the sides at the bottom of the trench and the whole of the sides above may cave in.

    The purpose of temporary timbering supports to trenches is to uphold the sides of the excavation as necessary to avoid collapse of the sides, which may endanger the lives of those working in the trench, and to avoid the wasteful labour of constantly clearing falling earth from the trench bottoms.
    The material most used for temporary support for the sides of excavations for strip foundations is rough sawn timber. The timbers used are square section struts, across the width of the trench, supporting open poling boards, close poling boards and walings or poling boards and sheeting.

    Whichever system of timbering is used there should be as few struts, that is horizontal members, fixed across the width of the trench as possible as these obstruct ease of working in the trench. Struts should be cut to fit tightly between poling or waling boards and secured in position so that they are not easily knocked out of place.

    For excavations more than 1.5 m deep in compact clay soils it is generally sufficient to use a comparatively open timbering system as the sides of clay will not readily fall in unless very wet or supporting heavy nearby loads. A system of struts between poling boards spaced at about 1.8 m intervals as illustrated in Fig. 39 will usually suffice.
    Struts and poling boards

    Where the soil is soft, such as soft clay or sand, it will be necessary to use more closely spaced poling boards to prevent the sides of the trench between the struts from falling in. To support the poling boards horizontal walings are strutted across the trench, as illustrated in Fig. 40.
    Struts waling and poling boards
    For trenches in dry granular soil it may be necessary to use sheeting to the whole of the sides of trenches. Rough timber sheeting boards are fixed along the length and up the sides of the trench to which poling boards are strutted, as illustrated in Fig. 41.
    Struts poling boards and sheeting
    The three basic arrangements of timber supports for trenches are indicative of some common system used and the sizes given are those that might be used.

  • Sulphate resisting Portland cement

    This cement has a reduced content of aluminates that combine with soluble sulphates in some soils and is used for concrete in contact with those soils.

  • Fine grained cohesive soils

    Fine grained cohesive soils, such as clays, are a natural deposit of the
    finest siliceous and aluminous products of rock weathering. Clay is smooth and greasy to the touch, shows high plasticity, dries slowly and shrinks appreciably on drying. Under the pressure of the load on foundations clay soils are very gradually compressed by the expulsion of water through the very many fine capillary paths, so that buildings settle gradually during building work and this settlement may continue for some years after the building is completed.

    The initial and subsequent small settlement by compression during and after building on clay subsoils will generally be uniform under most small buildings, such as houses, to the extent that no damage is caused to the structure and its connected services.

  • Coarse grained non-cohesive soils

    Soils which are composed mainly of, or combinations of, sand and gravel consist of largely siliceous, unaltered products of rock weathering. They have no plasticity and tend to lack cohesion, especially when dry. Under pressure of the loads on foundations the soils in this group compress and consolidate rapidly by some rearrangement of the coarse particles and the expulsion of water.

    A foundation on coarse grained non-cohesive soils settles rapidly by consolidation of the soil, as the building is erected, so that there is no further settlement once the building is completed.

  • Subsoil

    Subsoil is the general term for soil below the top soil.

    It is unusual for a subsoil to consist of gravel, sand or clay by itself. The majority of subsoils are mixes of various soils. Gravel, sand and clay may be combined in a variety of proportions. To make a broad assumption of the behaviour of a particular soil under the load on foundations it is convenient to group soils such as gravel, sand and clay by reference to the size and nature of the particles.

    The three broad groups are coarse grained non-cohesive, fine grained cohesive and organic. The nature and behaviour under the load on foundations of the soils in each group are similar.

  • Top soil

    The surface layer of most of the low lying land in this country, which is most suited to building, consists of a mixture of loosely compacted particles of sand, clay and an accumulation of decaying vegetation. This layer of top soil, which is about 100 to 300 mm deep, is sometimes referred to as vegetable top soil. It is loosely compacted, supports growing plant life and is unsatisfactory as a foundation. It should be stripped from the site of buildings because of its poor bearing strengths and its ability to retain moisture and support vegetation which might adversely affect the health of occupants of buildings.

  • Soils

    Soil is the general term for the upper layer of the earth’s surface which
    consists of various combinations of particles of disintegrated rock such as gravel, sand or clay with some organic remains of decayed vegetation generally close to the surface.