Boot lintels

When concrete has dried it is a dull, light grey colour. Some think that a concrete lintel exposed for its full depth on the external face of brick walls is not attractive. In the past it was for some years common concrete Practice to hide the concrete lintel behind a brick arch or brick lintel boot lintel built over the opening externally. lintel A modification of the ordinary rectangular section [&hellip

Composite and non-composite lintels

Composite lintels are stressed by a wire or wires at the centre of their depth and are designed to be used with the brickwork they support which acts as a composite part of the lintel in supporting loads. These comparatively thin precast lintels are built in over openings and brickwork is built over them. Prestressed lintels over openings more than 1200 mm wide should be supported to avoid deflection, until [&hellip

Casting lintels

The word ‘precast’ indicates that a concrete lintel has been cast inside a mould, and has been allowed time to set and harden before it is built into the wall. The words ‘situ-cast’ indicate that a lintel is cast in position inside a timber mould fixed over the opening in walls. Whether the lintel is precast or situ-cast will not affect the finished result and which method is used will depend [&hellip

Concrete lintels

Since Portland cement was first mass produced towards the end of the nineteenth century it has been practical and economic to cast and use concrete lintels to support brickwork over openings. Concrete is made from reasonably cheap materials, it can easily be moulded or cast when wet and when it hardens it has very good strength in resisting crushing and does not lose strength or otherwise deteriorate when exposed to [&hellip

Head of openings in solid walls

Solid brickwork over the head of openings has to be supported by either a lintel or an arch. The brickwork which the lintel or arch has to support is an isosceles triangle with 60° angles, formed by the bonding of bricks, as illustrated in Fig. 89. The triangle is formed by the vertical joints between bricks which overlap ±B. In a bonded wall if the solid brickwork inside the triangle [&hellip


For the strength and stability of walling the size of openings in walls is limited by regulations for both solid and cavity walls. Jambs of openings The jambs of openings for windows and doors in solid walls may be plain (square) or rebated. Plain or square jambs are used for small section window or door frames of steel and also for larger section frames where the whole of the external [&hellip

External weathering to walls of brick and block

In exposed positions such as high ground, on the coast and where there is little shelter from trees, high ground or surrounding buildings it may well be advisable to employ a system of weathering on the outer face of both solid and cavity walling to provide protection against wind driven rain. The two systems used are external rendering and slate or tile hanging. Rendering The word rendering is used in [&hellip


Up to the early part of the twentieth century walls were generally built as solid brickwork of adequate thickness to resist the penetration of rain to the inside face and to safely support the loads common to buildings both large and small. At the time it was accepted that the interior of buildings would be cold during winter months when heating was provided by open fires and stoves, fired by [&hellip

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